The United States needs water to go back to the Moon and stay, said by Jim Bridenstine of NASA Administrator on Friday. He told that the humanity though the Moon was bone-dry till 2009 because all they all landed in the central parts on the Moon. But the dark perennial polar areas of the Moon, have been storing water ice for millions of years. Moreover, the absence of sunlight restricts melting or vaporizing it. NASA has already proved the presence of liquid gold – water, by crashing a probe in the polar areas.
Eventually, NASA is sending a rover known as Volatiles Investigating Polar Exploration Rover or just VIPER, which according to the schedule, shall touchdown in December 2020. VIPER will observe and quantify the water, in the perpetual shadowed Polar Regions. Additionally, it can tell us the exact depth at which the water is there below the surface. The hardware of the VIPER is being made in Houston at Johnson Space Centre, while few of the instruments and tools are being produced at Kennedy Space Centre. However, to deploy the VIPER to the Moon, NASA will be renting a Commercial Payload Services contract to build the Lander.
VIPER will be almost as big as a Golf cart. It will be equipped with the needed prospecting tools. Jim announced that the VIPER’s Neutron Spectrometer System could detect water below the surface. When the rover is over a water store, it will deploy the Regolith and Ice Drill for Exploring New Terrain or the acronym, TRIDENT. It‘s a drilling instrument around a meter-long, which will bring up samples for analysis. Two other tools of the rover will perform analysis, and a pair of the spectrometer will determine the contents of the soil. By doing this methodically over a vast terrain, it will hopefully create a map of water deposits beneath the surface. The map can be used for analyzing for larger patterns like leading to a systematic, better understanding of water’s existence on the Moon.